January 30, 2009
The steadfast love (chesed) of God is an absolutely awesome revelation of the character of God. It is also the very foundation of our love for others as we live out life as a believer in the God who loves us with an everlasting love. In Psalm 136, every verse of that historical Psalm ends with the line, “the steadfast love of the LORD (Yahweh) endures forever.” It makes one ask, “Did the author want to emphasize history with those words for emphasis or was he illustrating the eternal chesed by interspersing bits of history in between?” Regardless it sets a good precedent for thinking about our own histories!
Homework assignment: Write a paragraph or two from your history framed and focused on God’s chesed, His everlasting, steadfast love.
This word is used for both man’s desired attitude towards man (see for example, Joshua 2:14; 1 Sam. 20:14; 2 Sam. 9:3), and most often of God towards man. The latter outnumber the former by about three to one.
The article on chesed in the New International Dictionary of OT Theology and Exegesis, vol. 2, pages 211-218, sums up the biblical data on this marvelous word in several characteristics.
1. Divine chesed saves people from disaster or oppressors. This loving loyalty on God’s part is their only hedge against disaster (Gen 19:19).
2. Divine chesed sustains life (Ps. 6:4-5; 119:88, 149, 159).
3. Divine chesed counteracts God’s wrath (Isa 54:8; Micah 7:18; Lam. 3:31-32). Wrath is a true word, a right word, sometimes an inevitable word, such passages seem to say. But God would not have it be his last word. That honor is reserved for his unfailing love (chesed).
4. Divine chesed is enduring, persistent, even eternal. The biblical writers celebrate the everlastingness of God’s chesed (Ps. 103:17; 136 [every verse]; Isa. 54:10; Jer. 31:3).
5. But also, several texts witness to at least the hypothetical possibility of losing God’s chesed or of having it taken away (Jer. 16:5; 2 Sam. 7:15). What should we make of such apparent contradiction? Perhaps it is that temporary removal is necessary to a more lengthy (eternal?) continuation! “Perhaps this very tension reminds us of the relational core at the center of this concept. God’s steadfast love is not a mechanical tool to be used in a crisis, nor a philosophical absolute to be taken for granted. Rather, it is a quality of relationship that is to be sought again, appropriated, and treasured in the covenantal partner’s every needy moment” (p. 216).
6. Divine chesed is regarded as the basis or motive for petition before God. Sinners seek forgiveness on the basis of God’s chesed. The pleas of the psalmists encourage the view that God can choose to remember either sin or his chesed, but not both! (Numbers 14:17-19; Neh. 13:22; Ps. 25:7; 51:1).
7. Divine chesed occupies a prominent role in the inner and communal life of God’s people.
8. Divine chesed is both abundant and great. (Ex. 34:6-7; Ps. 33:5; 36:5; 57:10; 119:64)
9. Divine chesed characterizes God’s rule and establishes his King and his kingdom. (Psalms 89:14; 2 Sam. 22:51).
January 29, 2009
God’s Steadfast Love
One of the great words of the Old Testament concerning the nature and activity of Almighty God is chesed, the Hebrew word which is variously translated as ‘lovingkindness’ (NASB), ‘steadfast love’ (ESV), ‘mercy’ (KJV). The KJV translation is really not right, for there is another Hebrew word for ‘mercy,’ and this word chesed relates more closely to the nature of love and kindness. However, as we will see below, it is used in context to give us the concept of ‘faithful’ or ‘loyal’ as modifiers for this love. The NIV translation (quite often ‘love’) is inadequate because there is another word ‘ahab which means love and this word has the wider, richer idea of ‘faithful-love’. I personally favor either ‘lovingkindness’ or ‘steadfast love.’
This word is used some 245 times in the OT and the vast majority of these tell us of God’s attitude and activity towards His people Israel. Below are some of the verses which use this word and often in combination or in parallel form with other key words that describe the character and activity of our Living Lord, Sovereign of the universe.
1. Many times this word is joined with another noun such as ‘righteousness,’ faithfulness,’ ‘truth.’
Gen. 24:27, 49; 47:29;
Ex. 34:6 (one of the key words in the revelation of His Name)
Josh. 2:14; 2 Sam. 2:6; 15:20 Psalm 25:10; 40:11; 57:3; 61:7; 85:10;
86:15; 89:2, 14
2. Sometimes it is with the word ‘covenant.’
Deut. 7:9; 1 Kings 8:23; Neh. 1:5; 9:32; Dan. 9:4
3. Sometimes with the nouns ‘justice’ and ‘righteousness.’
Ps. 101:1; Prov. 21:21 (notice the challenge: pursue these!); Hos. 12:6;
4. It is often used in parallel (in Hebrew poetry) with other mainstream words.
Ps. 36:10; 88:11; 89:1-2; 92:2; 117:2
Isaiah 16:5; 55:3; Hosea 4:1; Micah 7:20; 6:8
5. Then it is expanded with the adjective ‘great’ and coupled with God’s patience
Ex. 34:6; Num. 14:18; Neh. 9:17; Ps. 86:15; 103:8; 145:8; Isa. 54:8
Joel 2:13; Jonah 4:2
6. Also, consider His great chesed as related to the ideas of mercy and forgiveness
Ex. 34:6; Num. 14:19; Neh. 13:22; Ps. 5:7; 69:13; 86:5; 106:7, 45;
This great word used as above, strongly suggests God’s persistent, determined, character and nature was the foundation for the maintaining of His covenant with Israel. Someone has said that the word involves, in almost every case, a substratum of fixed, determined, almost stubborn steadfastness. Norman Snaith in his Distinctive Ideas of the Old Testament says,
“Wonderful as is His love for his covenant people, His steady persistence in it is more wonderful still. The most important of all the distinctive ideas of the OT is God’s steady and extraordinary persistence in continuing to love wayward Israel in spite of Israel’s insistent rebellion” (p.102).
Or, consider the message of Hosea. Through all the troubles which beat against and nearly broke the marriage covenant between Yahweh and Israel, there was one factor which never changed. This was God’s sure love for Israel. Because of this sure, unswerving love, the Covenant can never be finally and completely broken. The Covenant, initiated by God, could only be broken by God. Israel could sin, could rebel against God, but they were never to escape from that Covenant. Rather, they would find themselves under the curse of that Covenant rather than enjoying the blessing. Israel may have rejected God, but God had not, has not yet, and will not reject Israel because of His great faithful lovingkindness! And so we read of God’s plaintive cry in Hosea 11:8-9 (although there the word chesed does not appear).
There is one further aspect of this study. There is a cognate word chasid from the same root as chesed. This word is translated in most English versions as ‘saint.’ One who lives under the chesed of God is described in the OT as a chasid. He can be described as being
Some of the verses where this word chasid is found include:
1 Sam. 2:9; 2 Chron. 6:41; Prov. 2:8; Micah 7:2
Psalms 30:4; 31:23; 37:28; 50:5; 52:9; 79:2; 85:8; 89:19; 97:10; 116:15; 132:9, 16; 145:10; 148:14; 149:1, 5
Think about what the OT teaches us about the unsurpassable, immeasurable, awesome, wonderful love of God which knows no bounds of space or time! And remember, these affirmations of love are in – of all places – the Old Testament!
Could we with ink the ocean fill
And were the skies of parchment made,
Were every stalk on earth a quill
And every man a scribe by trade,
To write the love of God above
Would drain the ocean dry,
Nor could the scroll contain the whole
Tho stretched from sky to sky.
January 24, 2009
The Name YHWH is not something thought up by mankind, but given by revelation from God to us. His self-revelation is our only source of knowledge about God and His character. He employs human words, and makes comparisons on the basis of human understanding, language, relationships, etc.
This use of the human situation (we cannot understand even one word of divine language unless He condescends or accommodates Himself to our level – this is pure grace!) and uses human words called anthropomorphisms – “ascribing human form or attributes to a being (God) not human” (Random House Dictionary). The Bible contains not just a few scattered anthropomorphisms, but is anthropomorphic through and through. God stoops down to His creatures, speaking and appearing to them in human fashion. These things mentioned below are cited from the Bible by Herman Bavinck, Reformed Dogmatics Vol. 2, God and Creation, p.100 They add to our understanding that our God is a personal God! Bavinck gives Scriptural references for each of the following items and I will gladly pass them on to you if you would like them. (Trying to save on cyber paper or space or whatever)
While the Bible has no reference to God’s body (He is Spirit), there are many physical organs attributed to God. For instance there is mention of his face, his eyes, his eyelids, the apple of his eye, his ears, nose, mouth, lips, tongue and neck; his hand, his right hand, his finger, his heart his intestines, his bosom and his feet.
Many human emotions are represented as present in God: rejoicing, sorrow, grief; provocation, fear, love in all its variations such as mercy, compassion, grace, long-suffering and so on; also zeal, jealousy, repentance, hatred, wrath, and vengeance.
Human actions are attributed to God: investigating, searching minds, know, intending, forgetting, remembering, speaking, calling, commanding rebuking answering, witnessing, resting working, seeing, hearing, smelling, testing, sitting, arising, going, coming, visiting, abandoning, writing, sealing, engraving, striking, healing, killing and making alive, wiping away, wiping out, washing, cleansing, anointing, adorning, clothing, crowning, girding destroying, killing, inflicting, judging, condemning, forgiving, and so forth.
God is frequently described by names that denote relationship, position, occupation: such as bridegroom, a man, a father, a judge, king, lawgiver, warrior, mighty hero, an architect and builder, a gardener, shepherd, physician, and so on.
Further God is, in Scripture, compared (using similes and metaphors) to many items – organic and inorganic such as a lion, a lamb, a bear, an eagle, a hen, the sun, the morning star, a rose and lily, a light, lamp, fire, spring and fountain, food, bread, drink, water, ointment; a rock, a refuge, a tower, a stronghold, a shadow, a shield, a road, a temple. You can add to these lists.
Augustine wrote “All things can be said of God, but nothing can be said worthily of Him. Nothing is more widespread than this poverty [of expression]. You are looking for a fitting name for Him? You will not find it. You try to speak of Him in some way? You find that He is everything.”
How Great is Our God!
January 23, 2009
The two previous posts have shared something of the knowledge of God through the revelation of His Name Yahweh. This post is to intentionally focus on a fruit-bearing life as a result of knowing Him.
When we trust Him who has such a Name, we will have what we might call a biblical lifestyle, a response that will honor the God who has made Himself known to us. We can never forget that if He did not reveal Himself to us, we would have absolutely no knowledge of Him. We would be like those who worship gods of wood and stone. They can say nothing of him (it!) as to what their god is like.
But when we do listen to Him through His Word we can exhibit some of the following: (Again this is more of a concordance study, finding what the Bible has to say about the Name.)
A. Be a people called by His Name, 2 Chron. 7:14; Deut. 28:10; Isa. 43:7; 63:19
B. We will worship in the Name, Gen. 4:26; 12:8; 13:4; Ex. 34:8; Job 1:21
1. Sing praises, Ps. 7:17; 9:2; 18:49; 44:8; 61:8; 63:4; 66:4; 68:4
2. Give thanks in the Name, 1 Chron 16:8; Ps. 106:47; 122:4; 140:13
3. Glorify the Name, Ps. 86:9, 12; 105:3
4. Confess sin for His Name’s sake, 1 Kings 8:33, 35; Ps. 79:9
5. Bless in the Name, Num. 6:27; Deut. 10:8; 18:5; 1 Chron. 16:2
C. We will fear His Name, Neh. 1:11; Ps. 61:5; 86:11; 102:15
D. We will love His Name, Ps. 5:11; 69:36; 119:132; Isa. 26:8
E. We will repent in the Name, 2 Chron. 6:24-26
F. We will trust His Name, Ps. 33:21
G. We will not take it in vain, Ex. 20:7
H. We will not blaspheme the Name, Lev. 18:21; 19:12; 21:5; 24:16
I. We will fight in the Name, Ex. 5:23; 15:3; 1 Sam. 17:45
J. We will make the Name known, Ex. 9:16; Deut. 28:10, 58; 32:3; Jos. 2:8-11; 1 Kings 8:41-43; 10:1; 1 Chron. 17:21; Ps. 22:22; 52:9; 102:18-21; 106:8; Isa. 63:12, 14; 64:1-2; Jer. 16:21
Looks like a pretty well-rounded picture of the life of a believer to me. Does it describe our life? If not, why not? Jesus once urged (Luke 8:18) “Be careful therefore HOW you hear,” not just WHAT you hear. Lord, please help us live biblical, wise, contagious Christian lives!
January 22, 2009
Psalm 9:10 says “Those who know Your Name will put their trust in You” (NASB). What I started in the last post, talking about God’s name, will be continued here as we think of (1) the greatness of His name and (2) some biblical expansions of that name to further describe His character. What follows is really just a concordance study of the word “name” as it relates to God. You can add to the list here, but just to get you started, here are a few references:
I. The majesty of the Name, Ps. 8:1, 9; 138:2; Micah 5:4
1. It is eternal, Ps. 72:17; 135:13
2. It extends everywhere, Ps. 48:10; Isa. 24:14-15
3. It is holy, 1 Chron. 16:10, 35; Ps. 111:9
4. It is ‘jealous’, Ex. 34:14; Deut. 4:24; Josh. 24:19; Nahum 1:2
5. It is ‘wonderful’, Judges 13:18
6. It is ‘excellent’, Ps. 148:13
7. His Name is a strong tower, Prov. 18:10
8. It is our protection, Ps. 21:1, 5, 7; 91:14
9. It is our help, Ps. 124:8
10. It is a great and terrible Name, Ps. 99:3
II. According to His Name He is:
1. Yahweh-jireh, Gen. 22:14, Yahweh provides
2. Yahweh-rophe, Ex. 15:26, Yahweh heals
3. Yahweh-nissi, Ex. 17:15, Yahweh my banner
4. Yahweh-m’kaddesh, Lev. 20:8, Yahweh who sanctifies
5. Yahweh-shalom, Judges 6:24, Yahweh is peace
6. Yahweh-tsidkenu, Jer. 23:5-6, Yahweh our righteousness
7. Yahweh-rohi, Ps. 23:1, Yahweh my Shepherd
8. Yahweh-shammah, Ezek. 48:35, Yahweh is there
9. Yahweh-sabaoth, Isa. 48:2; 51:15; 54:5; Jer. 10:16, Yahweh (and/or God) of Hosts appears about 285 times in the OT)
Now a brief homework assignment Pick out several of the above references (be sure to read the context as well!) and then write a paragraph or two on the person and character of Yahweh God revealed in your reading. Bless you as you think deeply on the wonders of knowing God.
January 20, 2009
God reveals Himself through His Name in the OT
God (translation of the Hebrew word ‘elohim) is the subject of the very first verse in the Bible and without any explanation is announced as the Creator of “the heavens and the earth.” God is here revealed as what He is. He is other than the material universe, other than anything of which we can conceive. I do not introduce myself to a stranger with the sentence, “Hi, I am man.” No, that is what I am, but I introduce myself as who I am – a person named Jerry.
I emphasize that point to stress the next point which is to say that He reveals to Moses (Exodus 3:14f) not just ‘what’ He is, but who He is. Moses asked what he should answer when asked by fellow Israelites, “what is His name?” (3:13) In the Old Testament, to know one’s name was to (1) know something of that one’s character and (2) to have some kind of relationship with that one. His question was not just to find out God’s ‘personalness’ but to inquire about His character as well. God said “I am that I am,” . . . “I am” has sent you. His Name is taken from that verb (I am) and the phrase (I am what I am) is a hint of His character. I learned from J. Wash Watts, my Hebrew professor at New Orleans Baptist Seminary, that that phrase is best translated as
“I will be (in every situation) what I have always been (in every situation).”
This fits with the many times down through the pages of the OT we find revealed, “I am (or He is) the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob. As if to remind us that He is YHWH who will be faithful and available to us in every situation He says ‘I am YHWH, the God who was faithful in all situations to Abraham, to Isaac, to Jacob,’ to Moses and Joshua and David and Jeremiah and Daniel and Peter and Paul and Timothy will be faithful to you and me. What a marvelous word to dear friends who are heart-sick over a granddaughter on the streets and alone. Join with me in trusting that our God will be Yahweh (or Jehovah or I AM or however we pronounce it) to be faithful in every day of that young lady’s life. Why? Because we care about her life and because that is His Name
That name comes from what Hebrew students know as the tetragrammaton (4 Hebrew letters put together), transliterated YHWH. Because of reverence for ‘the Name’ Hebrew readers read this 4 letter word as “Lord” but to distinguish it from another word which does mean “Lord, Master, Boss, Sovereign Ruler”, etc., they (most English translations) translate it as LORD. Actually it is with a large upper case “L” and smaller but still upper case “ORD.” Look at any place in your Bible (Ex. 6:3 for example) and you will see what I mean. Everywhere you find that translation, you know it is His Name. It appears about 6,828 times in the Hebrew Bible. Exodus 3:16 tells us that “This is my Name forever.” This is more that the times the word God is used, which, by the way appears about 2,570 times in the OT.
Now read Exodus 34:5-8 and learn more of the character of the great God whose name is YHWH. More on this mighty, wonderful Name in the next posting. In the mean time notice that Name by the translation LORD as you read your Bible in the days ahead. Enjoy!
January 5, 2009
Turning toward the only One who can save!
Most of us have probably entertained a piece of wishful thinking stating something like: “Well, God hates the sin, but He loves the sinner.” Is this pleasant notion valid, or right, or true? I suggest that the Bible says it is neither valid, nor right, nor true, but that it is wrong-headed, designed by evil powers to lead us and keep us away from Christ.
Richard O. Roberts, in his valuable book Repentance: The First Word of the Gospel, shows the fallacy of such teaching by looking a bit more closely at three passages in their context. They are Proverbs 6:16-19; Isaiah 1:4-6, 12-15, and Malachi 2:13-16. Do these speak exclusively of the evil acts, or of evil persons, or both?
Roberts asks a pointed question, “If you were asked the question, ‘Which does God send to hell, sin or sinners,’ how would you answer?” This answer from the Bible is quite plain. It is unrepentant sinners who go there. Consider some of the many verses in the Bible which point us in this direction. (Note that I am also pointing this way, not to turn anyone away from anything that smacks of being biblical or religious – there are more than enough of those folks already – but to help us towards repentance and eternal life!)
Again citing Roberts:
• We know that God hates idolatry (the sin), and yet we read, “Cursed is the man who makes an idol . . .” (Deut. 27:15, emphasis added).
• We know that God hates injustice and yet we read, “He who justifies the wicked, and he who condemns the righteous, both of them alike are an abomination to the Lord” (Proverbs 17:15).
• Read Leviticus 20:23 and note the last phrase, “. . . I have abhorred them.” In conjunction with that verse, see Hebrews 3:16-10, “For who provoked Him when they had heard? Indeed did not all those who came out of Egypt led by Moses? And with whom was He angry for forty years? Was it not with those who sinned, whose bodies fell in the wilderness? And to whom did He swear that they should not enter His rest, but to those who were disobedient? And so we see that they were not able to enter because of unbelief.”
• See also Psalm 5:;4-6
• Psalm 7:11-12
• Psalm 11:5-7
• Isaiah 63:10
• Proverbs 11:21; 12:22; 14:32; 15:9
• Romans 1:18; 2:5; 9:13, 22-24
• Ephesians 2:3
• John 3:36
Such verses and many more should encourage us to flee to Christ in repentance and faith. There is a balm in Gilead (Jer. 8:22), a Healer of the sin-sick soul. It is Jesus who died for sinners – us sinners.